In the history tome The Tale of Heike , Tomoe was described as "a remarkably strong archer, and as a swordswoman she was a warrior worth a thousand, ready to confront a demon or a god, mounted or on foot. Her hobbies included riding wild horses down intimidatingly steep hills.
She regularly led men into battle and to victory. Her last was the Battle of Awazu, where Minamoto no Yoshinaka was killed. Tomoe escaped her enemies there, and gave up her sword and bowed to retirement. From there, some say she married. Years later, when her husband died, it's believed Tomoe became a nun. As wife of the king of the Celtic tribe Iceni, Boudicca was a queen—but it was widowhood that made her a warrior.
Her husband Prasutagus's will demanded that his kingdom be given jointly to his daughters and his ally, the Roman emperor. However Rome only recognized a son's right to inherit. So, upon Prasutagus's death, Rome not only invaded, but tortured Boudicca tortured and raped her daughters. This would not stand.
Around 60 A. From there, she rode her troops down through Londinium London and Verulamium St. Albans , destroying cities and slaughtering between 70, and 80, Her victories forced Emperor Nero to consider pulling out of Britain completely. However, a Roman defeat of Boudicca's forces turned the tide. What became of her after this loss is a matter of debate.
There's no record of her capture, so it is believed she died either by illness or suicide. Despite the destruction she wrought there, Boudicca is still remembered favorably in London thanks to a resurgence of her legend in the Victorian era. In , a bronze statue called Boadicea and Her Daughters was erected at the western side of Westminster Bridge. It shows this warrior queen riding a chariot into battle, pulled by two horses. Her daughters are on board beside her, as her arm reaches high into the air, her fist clutching a mighty spear.modernpsychtraining.com/cache/iphones/jicur-cell-number.php
Epic Warrior Women
When her mother refused to let Grace set sail with her father, claiming the girl's long hair would get tangled in their ropes, the firebrand promptly chopped off her locks, earning passage on the voyage as well as the name that translates roughly to "bald. The ships she likewise inherited, she used for piracy.
Grace and her crews would board vessels that dared come too close to her shores or ships, and from them she'd take what she called a "tax" for passage. Resistance to pay would result in violence or death. She was said to be so fearsome that even the day after birthing a child upon her ship, she took up arms to defend it, scolding her men , "May you be seven times worse this day twelvemonth, who cannot do without me for one day!
Yet Grace's greatest showdown was against Queen Elizabeth I. At a time when chieftains' power was being trounced by this monarch, a chieftain had the audacity to write to her directly demanding she be free to continue her piracy, as long as it was against the enemies of England.
Soon letters led to the willful Grace sailing to England for a fateful face-to-face meeting that resulted in the queen releasing the pirate queen's captured son and brother, as well as returning properties confiscated by English forces. But above all, Elizabeth granted Grace permission to "fight in our quarrel with all the world. This Apache warrior is believed to have been in her 30s when she and her brother Victorio's tribe was forced into the San Carlos Reservation in s Arizona.
The place was described as " Hell's Forty Acres" because of its deplorable conditions. Around , Victorio led a band—Lozen among them—out of the reservation, and together they raided the lands, striking awe and fear in the hearts of the settlers of New Mexico's Black Mountain, who had taken over the Apache land.
Lozen took pity on the women and children during one such raid, and, as recounted by James Kaywaykla, who was a child at the time, she led them to safety across the Rio Grande. Lozen the woman warrior! Her brother is quoted as saying, "Lozen is my right hand Lozen is a shield to her people. Victorio died in battle while Lozen was seeing a new mother and baby back to the reservation. Hearing of the battle and her brother's death, she set out to aid the survivors. From there she was a part of a vengeance-fueled rampage that streaked across New Mexico in She later fought beside Geronimo, and legend has it she could sense the enemy's location and number just by reaching out her arms.
After Geronimo's surrender, Lozen was captured.
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She died of tuberculosis while she was a prisoner of war. Her body was returned to the tribe so it could be buried in a place of honor according to Apache tradition. Following the assassination of her husband and stepson in , Zenobia became the ruler of the Palmyrene Empire that lived in what is now Syria. Within two years of her ascent, she was battling back the advances of Rome and expanding the boundaries of her kingdom by force, invading Egypt and Anatolia.
Though an accomplished rider, she also showed a kinship with her army by walking miles upon miles in step with her foot soldiers. She was truly their warrior queen. Zenobia would go on to capture key trade routes before the Romans responded by laying siege to Emesa, where her treasury lay. She and her son Vaballathus escaped the siege, but were caught along the Euphrates River. He is presumed to have died along the way.
As for Zenobia, her reign was fierce but brief. It's said that her defeat was celebrated in Rome in , when she, bound in golden chains, was led through the streets as part of a military parade. From there, her final chapter is a matter of debate.
Some historians believe she died in Rome, either through illness, hunger strike, or beheading. But happier accounts claim that Roman Emperor Aurelian, so in awe of her integrity and grace, granted her clemency and freedom. In this version, she married a Roman politician. From there, she became a philosopher and socialite with a fleet of daughters and a luxurious home. Trick-or-treating, Jack-O'-Lanterns, and creepy costumes are some of the best traditions of Halloween.
Share these sweet facts with friends as you sort through your candy haul. Jack-O'-Lanterns , which originated in Ireland using turnips instead of pumpkins, are supposedly based on a legend about a man name Stingy Jack who repeatedly trapped the Devil and only let him go on the condition that Jack would never go to Hell. The Devil gave Jack a lump of burning coal in a carved-out turnip to light his way.
Eventually, locals began carving frightening faces into their own gourds to scare off evil spirits.
Celtic people believed that during the festival Samhain , which marked the transition to the new year at the end of the harvest and beginning of the winter, spirits walked the Earth. Later, the introduction of All Souls Day on November 2 by Christian missionaries perpetuated the idea of a mingling between the living and the dead around the same time of year. With all these ghosts wandering around the Earth during Samhain, the Celts had to get creative to avoid being terrorized by evil spirits.
To fake out the ghosts, people would don disguises so they would be mistaken for spirits themselves and left alone. There is a lot of debate around the origins of trick-or-treating. One theory proposes that during Samhain, Celtic people would leave out food to placate the souls and ghosts and spirits traveling the Earth that night. Eventually, people began dressing up as these otherworldly beings in exchange for similar offerings of food and drink. Other researchers speculate that the candy bonanza stems from the Scottish practice of guising , itself a secular version of souling.
Some sources argue that our modern trick-or-treating stems from belsnickling , a tradition in German-American communities where children would dress in costume and then call on their neighbors to see if the adults could guess the identities of the disguised guests. In one version of the practice, the children were rewarded with food or other treats if no one could identify them.
Viking Men Buried Themselves With Stallions and Ate the Mares
The association of black cats and spookiness actually dates all the way back to the Middle Ages, when these dark kitties were considered a symbol of the Devil. This game traces its origins to a courting ritual that was part of a Roman festival honoring Pomona, the goddess of agriculture and abundance. Multiple variations existed, but the gist was that young men and women would be able to foretell their future relationships based on the game.
When the Romans conquered the British Isles, the Pomona festival was blended with the similarly timed Samhain, a precursor to Halloween. The classic Halloween colors can also trace their origins back to the Celtic festival Samhain. Some sources say that pranks were originally part of May Day celebrations. But Samhain, and eventually All Souls Day, seem to have included good-natured mischief.
When Scottish and Irish immigrants came to America, they brought along the tradition of celebrating Mischief Night as part of Halloween, which was great for candy-fueled pranksters. These days, candles are more likely than towering traditional bonfires , but for much of the early history of Halloween, open flames were integral in lighting the way for souls seeking the afterlife. People have been coating fruit in sugar syrups as a means of preservation for centuries. Since the development of the Roman festival of Pomona, the goddess often represented by and associated with apples, the fruit has had a place in harvest celebrations.
As part of Samhain, the Celts lit large bonfires, which attracted insects. The insects, in turn, attracted bats, which soon became associated with the festival. Medieval folklore expanded upon the spooky connotation of bats with a number of superstitions built around the idea that bats were the harbingers of death. The act of going door-to-door for handouts has long been a part of Halloween celebrations.
Toys, coins, fruit, and nuts were just as likely to be given out. The rise in the popularity of trick-or-treating in the s inspired candy companies to make a marketing push with small, individually wrapped confections. According to some stories, a candymaker at the Wunderlee Candy Company in Philadelphia invented the revolutionary tri-color candy in the s. I had a sense of the author saying 'poor little me' behind every sentence, and that grew tiresome.