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This will make it easier to trace the code, but if the error occurs inside of core Corona code, debug symbols will still not be available. In these cases, you'll need to trace backwards and determine why the information you're passing to a Corona library function is causing an error. Here, useful debugging messages will be shown, along with the value of print statements within your code. While this practice may be considered outdated to some developers, tracking the output of print commands can often reveal the cause of an error or an issue with conditional logic.

This helps simulate some device features that the Corona Simulator cannot, but it's still not as accurate as a real device. Some errors only manifest themselves once you install the app on a device. Fortunately, each device has its own console log which you can access, and for Apple, you can see this console log within Xcode as follows:. Connect the device to your computer and wait until it appears in the left column of the window. Near the bottom of the window, click the small button highlighted below to open the device's console log.

Debugging on Android is a bit more "command line oriented," but once you figure out the commands, it's reasonably quick to install an app, view the log as the app runs, and look for error messages. Simply follow these steps:.

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Visit the download page. Then, in the Get just the command line tools section, select the correct option for your system.

Debug Java code like a Pro, by Mikaël Barbero

Install the tools. On Windows, run the installer; on macOS, unzip the file and move the folder to a sensible location. Once the tools are installed, you can use the command line tools. This command will filter out all messages except those generated by Corona. To see the entire log, use this command instead:.

This will prevent filtering for Corona-specific activity, but it will generate a large number of messages and it will be difficult to locate those relevant to the problem. Thus, it may be helpful to include some print statements within your code near the area which you suspect is problematic. If you prefer a more visual tool, adb also offers a GUI version of adb logcat called monitor. If you're working on a Win32 desktop app, some details on debugging can be located here. If you're working on a macOS desktop app, some details on debugging can be located here.

A Programmer’s Guide To Effective Debugging

Consider this code:. Without indenting the lines to show the various blocks of code, it's very difficult to read. In fact, there's an error which would be obvious if the code was indented correctly. Compare the difference:. As you can see, there is a missing end keyword for the doSomething function, and this is clearly revealed when the code is properly indented. Many code editors can help you by automatically indenting code and, when you close a block, it will back out one level and put the end in the correct place. Each operating system has a selection of code editors, and better editors feature Lua syntax highlighting.

For a list of recommended editors, please see our installation guides for macOS or Windows. Another important aspect is naming variables and functions so that you and others know what they mean. Consider these two blocks of code:. These functions are identical in behavior, but by using clearer variable and function names, most developers can easily figure out what you're trying to accomplish. Some developers are dismayed to find that their project works in the Corona Simulator but not on their actual device.

Usually, one of the following factors is at fault:. File names are not case-sensitive.

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When testing on macOS or Windows, file names are not case-sensitive , but when running on a device, the file names must match in case. For example, the file name titleimage. PNG are the same in the Corona Simulator, but they are considered different on a device. There is an error in the build. Please see the Project Build Settings guide for instructions on how to properly construct the build.

There's a problem with a plugin. Each plugin must be included exactly as specified, and several plugins require device permissions in order to function properly. Please see the appropriate plugin documentation for details. In some cases, an event listener function may still be running when you attempt to remove the listener, or a Corona library will be completing an internal process when you attempt to call a certain action. For example, you may attempt to remove a GPS listener while the GPS event is still being processed, or you may try to deactivate a physics body at the exact moment it collides with another object.

The solution to these type of issues is to perform the necessary action after a short timer delay:. If you have exhausted all of the above debugging methods, proceed to the Corona Forums. There you can search for topics which describe the same issue you're struggling with. Note that new contributors will have their first post moderated — these will be entered into the system, but they will not be visible to others until approved by a moderator.

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Report an Issue. Debugging Guide As a developer, you will occasionally encounter problems in your code, including incorrect logic, improper usage of an API, or any number of other issues.

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Background Oops! Using Break Points One key concept in using an interactive debugger is the ability to stop your program at certain points so you can observe the current state. At this point, you have several options: Run — Run the code until the next break point or until completion.

Toggle Breakpoint — Turn off the breakpoint or set a new one. Inspect Variable — See Inspecting Variables below. Stop — Stop the program. Stack Tracing Sometimes it's helpful to know where an error originated from. The line number within that file where the error occurred, for instance Line The reason for the error, such as Attempt to perform arithmetic on a nil value. The stack trace which can help you locate the origin of the error, for example: stack traceback: main.

Proceed with the build process and the application will open in a simulated device window. Device Debugging — iOS Some errors only manifest themselves once you install the app on a device. Fortunately, each device has its own console log which you can access, and for Apple, you can see this console log within Xcode as follows: Open Xcode if it's not already running.

Device Debugging — Android Debugging on Android is a bit more "command line oriented," but once you figure out the commands, it's reasonably quick to install an app, view the log as the app runs, and look for error messages. Software developers debug programs for a living.

Hence, good debugging skills are a must-have. That said, I always found it regretable that debugging is hardly taught in engineering schools. Well, it is a tricky subject, and there are no good textbooks. The latter can be helped, I thought. That's how the idea for this book was born. With small inlined examples and exercises at the end of each chapter it is well suited to accompany a CS course or lecture. At the same time it can be used as a reference used to address problems as the need arises. This book goes beyond the level of simple source code debugging scenarios.

In addition, it covers the most frequent real-world problems from the areas of program linking, memory access, parallel processing and performance analysis. The picture is completed by chapters covering static checkers and techniques to write code that leans well towards debugging. The techniques are not restricted to a particular compiler, debugger or operating system.

The examples are structured such that they can be reproduced with free open-source software. Thorsten Gr tker was born in in M nchengladbach, Germany.