Available online by subscription. Friedland, William H. Rosberg Jr. African Socialism.
When it was published, this book was considered perhaps the most authoritative analysis on African socialism. Rather than being seen as a form of communism, African socialism was viewed as a pragmatic ideology that blended some aspects of classical socialism, communism, Pan-Africanism, and African traditional values. Its definition varied from place to place and person to person. Idahosa, P. This book critically examines the relationship of the post-independence African state, popular classes, and development.
It is argued that populist thinkers Nyerere, Cabral, and Fanon shared a common passion for a brand of socialism that was democratic and rooted in precolonial traditions as well as in Marxist-Leninist theory. Their thought also considered the critical need to control capital without being exploited by it.
Keller, Edmond J. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, It highlights the impact of the Cold War on their growth and policy performance.
Communism and national liberation: The legacy of the Comintern
Munslow, Barry, ed. Africa: Problems in the Transition to Socialism. London: Zed, The chapters in this book offer analyses of the socialist strategies of African liberation movements that assumed control of independent governments and common problems they have faced in the process of transitioning from colonial domination. Ottaway, Marina, and David Ottaway.
New York: Africana, Rosberg, Carl, and Thomas Callaghy, eds. It exposes the shortcomings of so-called African socialism in practice.
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The authors contend that, in practice, the aspiring ideology did not provide a clear strategy for social transformation after colonialism. Young, Crawford. Ideology and Development.
This award-winning book provides a useful framework for analyzing various forms of socialist ideologies and institutional choice in Africa from the s to the s. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Lenin made important additions to Marxist doctrine in response to the demands of revolutionary practice. These additions form Leninism which reveals Lenin's skill as a tactician and his political flexibility. A key contribution was the concept of the revolutionary party, developed first in his What Is to Be Done?
Lenin accepted violence and terror as legitimate tools of class war. He created the Soviet security police, the Cheka. He established the prototype of the totalitarian dictatorship, which tried to remake society and human nature and claimed the right to control all aspects of life. Lenin's ideological teachings and organizational methods paved the way for Joseph Stalin 's brutal dictatorship.
His initial indifference and even hostility to the nationality issue expressed itself in his rejection of the ethnic criterion in party organization, his opposition to the Jewish Bund , and his commitment to centralism. The class struggle ruled out any national loyalties. Lenin never visited Ukraine and only slowly acquired some understanding of its peculiar position. By he had associated Ukraine with Poland and Finland in his criticism of tsarist policies.
Between March and October the Provisional Government was reorganized four times. The first government was composed entirely of liberal ministers, with the exception of the Socialist Revolutionary Aleksandr F. The subsequent governments were coalitions. None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: peasant land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas, and the collapse of army morale at the front.
Meanwhile, soviets on the Petrograd model, in far closer contact with the sentiments of the people than the Provisional Government was, had been organized in cities and major towns and in the army.
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One reason was that radical socialists increasingly dominated the soviet movement. Kerensky became head of the Provisional Government in July and put down a coup attempted by army commander in chief Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov according to some historians, Kerensky may have initially plotted with Kornilov in the hope of gaining control over the Petrograd Soviet. By September the Bolsheviks and their allies, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, had overtaken the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and held majorities in both the Petrograd and Moscow soviets.
Although a previous coup attempt the July Days had failed, the time now seemed ripe. On October 24—25 November 6—7 the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points. The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which convened in Petrograd simultaneously with the coup, approved the formation of a new government composed mainly of Bolshevik commissars. Russian Revolution.
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